Mark Langley, chief executive, Project Management Institute, provides his tips on what he thinks the emirates should do to confront these problems.
“At some stage, all big projects come up against the triple constraints of time, budget and scope. You may not be able to meet the demands of all three. Dubai is on a schedule defined largely by 2020, so it may have to spend more to get there by the set time,” he says.
Time and budget are self-explanatory, but by scope he means the reality of the projects themselves, that is the building, road, bridge or airport planned. That too can change in the course of the project, he says.
And to these variables, you must add the ever present threat of “black swan” events like another downturn in the global economic cycle, or socio-political threats.